Conditional sentence

Conditional sentences play an important role in grammar. On this page I'll try to point out the most important facts about them.

Conditional sentences have two parts: the if-clause and the main clause. In the sentence If it rains, I will stay at home, "if it rains" is the if-clause, and "I will stay at home" is the main clause.

When studying conditionals, there two ways to go:

a) this method of studying/ teaching is intended for beginners. It narrows the number of types of conditionals down to four:

This is done for the sake of simplicity so students studying the conditional for the first time aren't confused. These four conditionals usually make up for 95% of conditional sentences.

b) if you're a more advanced student, it's reasonable to analyze the other method. It is vital to understand that certain variations are possible with each type of the conditional. Those variations are the so-called mixed conditionals but not only.

But how do we form those variations?

The easiest way is to understand that both clauses (the if-clause and the main clause) can be real or unreal and refer to present (future) or past. Depending on these factors, the clause will look different.

Real conditional describes real-life, possible situations.

Unreal conditional describes imaginary situations.

We'll deal with each clause separately.


First of all, you must decide if the situation in the if-clause is real or unreal.

Examples of real if-clauses:

  • I have some money, I go to a club. (zero conditional or first conditional can be used)
    It's a situation that happens very often.
  • When my uncle visited us, he would always help me with my homework.
    My uncle visited us many times.

Examples of unreal if-clauses.

  • If I could fly, I...
    But that will never happen.
  • If she had told me about that,...
    but she didn't tell me.

Once you've decided about that, it's time to choose the correct tense. As I mentioned, there are two choices: the present (future) or the past.

Examples of present if-clauses:

  • If meet him again, I will tell him that. (zero conditional or first conditional can be used)
    I will probably meet him soon.
  • If I were a bit taller, I would be more attractive.
    But I'm not taller.

Examples of past if-clauses:

  • When my uncle visited us, he would always help me with my homework.
    My uncle visited us many times.
  • If she had told me about that,...
    But she didn't tell me.

If these examples have confused you a bit, don't worry — I'm sure everything will become more and more obvious in just a moment.

The table below sums up what has been said about the if-clause.

1 Real Unreal
2 Present / Future Simple Present
If he says
Simple Past
If he said
Past Simple Past
If he said
Past Perfect
If he had said


The main-clause is also formed in two steps: first decide if you're talking about a real or an unreal situation, and then choose the correct tense.

If the main-clause is real, then it is exactly the same as a normal sentence. For example:

  • If he's late again, I will fire him. (first conditional]
    The situation is real because it can happen at any time.
  • If the weather was nice, she often walked to work.
    The situation is real because it happened (at least according to the speaker).

If the main-clause is unreal, then it is formed in accordance with the table below:

Present / Future Modal + Infinitive
Examples: would, might, should, could
Past Modal + Perfect Infinitive
Examples: would have, might have, should have, could have

  • If it wasn't raining, we would go for a walk. (second conditional)
    But it is raining.
  • If he had been late again, I would have fired him. (third conditional)
    But he wasn't late.

OK, so far I've been mostly using examples that were, in fact, the four basic conditionals (as mentioned in the parentheses) and the Mixed Conditional. If these were the only conditional sentences that there are, two thirds of this article would be worthless. Of course, that's not the case - the purpose of this was to use simpler sentences that would accustom you to the method b) .

Now that you are accustomed to it (I hope you are!), we can proceed to the more advanced examples, which are the essence of the article. Let's start:

1. If neither of you saw the dog, I might have had hallucinations.

The if-clause is about a real situation. The main-clause is unreal because the speaker is unsure of the truth. Both clauses are about the past.

If it were a part of conversation, it might look similar to this:

1: Have you seen that? Something has moved in the bushes.
2: Where?!
1: Over there. It's a dog!
2: We can't see anything there, Mark.
The next day (Mark's conclusion):
1: Well, if neither of you saw the dog, I might have had hallucinations.

2. You should not tell him about the letter, even if he asked your about it.

Both clauses are present/future. The questions that arises: why is the verb ask in the past form?

The answer is: because in this way, the speaker tells us that the situation of him asking is unlikely — it is unreal.

3. If they were born in the US, they don't need a green card.

That's a simple sentence whose both clauses are real, however the if-clause is in the past.

There are at least a couple more variations and I strongly encourage you to find them.

As you can see it's quite easy — all in all — to form the conditional sentences using the method b). It's important, however, not to forget about the basic conditionals because, as mentioned, they are used most often.

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modal auxilary verb

Auxiliary Verbs are the verbs be, do, have, will when they are followed by another verb (the full verb) in order to form a question, a negative sentence, a compound tense or the passive.

The verb "be"

The verb be can be used as an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this verb for compound tenses and the passive voice. Note that be is an irregular verb:

Simple Present:
I am, he/she/it is, we/you/they are
Simple Past:
I/he/she/it was, we/you/they were
Past Participle:

You can tell that in the following sentences be is an auxiliary because it is followed by another verb (the full verb). (For progressive forms use the "-ing" form of the full verb; for passive voice, use the past participle of the full verb.)

Progressive Forms

Present Progressive:
He is playing football.
Past Progressive:
He was playing football.
Present Perfect Progressive:
He has been playing football.
Past Perfect Progressive:
He had been playing football.


Simple Present/Past:
The house is/was built.
Present/Past Perfect:
The house has/had been built.
Future I:
The house will be built.

"be" as a full verb

The verb be can also be a full verb. In this case, it's not followed by another verb. If be is used as a full verb, we do not need an auxiliary in negative sentences or questions.

positive sentence:
They are fifteen years old.
negative sentence:
They are not fifteen years old.
Are they fifteen years old?

The verb "have"

The verb have, too, can be used both as an auxiliary and as a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this verb to form compound tenses in active and passive voice. (Use the past participle of the full verb.)

Compound Tenses - Active Voice

Present Perfect Simple:
He has played football.
Past Perfect Simple:
He had played football.
Present Perfect Progressive:
He has been playing football.
Past Perfect Progressive:
He had been playing football.

Compound Tenses - Passive Voice

Present/Past Perfect:
The house has/had been built.

Note that have is an irregular verb, too:

Simple Present:
I/we/you/they have, he/she/it has
Simple Past:
I/he/she/it/we/you/they had
Past Participle:

"have" in positive sentences

As a full verb have indicates possession. In British English, however, we usually use have got (have being the auxiliary, got the full verb).

full verb:
I have a car.
auxiliary verb:
I have got a car.

"have" in negative sentences and questions

When we use have as a full verb, we must use the auxiliary do in negative sentences and questions. If we use have got, however, we do not need another auxiliary.

have as a full verb:
I do not have a car.
Do I have a car?
have as an auxiliary verb:
I have not got a car.
Have I got a car?

The verb "will"

The verb will can only be used as an auxiliary. We use it to form the future tenses.

The auxiliary verb "will"

Future I:
He will not play football.
Future II:
He will have played football.

The verb will remains the same for all forms (no "s" for 3rd person singular). The short form for negative sentences is won't.'

I will, he will
I will not = I won't

The verb "do"

The verb do can be both an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use do in negative sentences and questions for most verbs (except not for be, will, have got and modal verbs) in Simple Present and Simple Past. (Use the infinitive of the full verb.)

The auxiliary "do" in negative sentences

Simple Present:
He does not play football.
Simple Past:
He did not play football.

The auxiliary "do" in questions

Simple Present:
Does he play football?
Simple Past:
Did he play football?

The verb do is irregular:

Simple Present:
I/we/you/they do, he/she/it does
Simple Past:
I/he/she/it/we/you/they did

The full verb "do"

As a full verb we use do in certain expressions. If we want to form negative sentences or questions using do as a full verb, we need another do as an auxiliary.

positive sentence:
She does her homework every day.
negative sentence:
She doesn't do her homework every day.
Does she do her homework every day?

Sentences without the auxiliary "do"

In the following cases, the auxiliary do is not used in negative sentences/questions:

the full verb is "be"

I am not angry. / Are you okay?

the sentence already contains another auxiliary (e.g. have, be, will)

They are not sleeping. / Have you heard that?

the sentence contains a modal verb (can, may, must, need, ought to, shall, should)

We need not wait. / Can you repeat that, please?

the question asks for the subject of the sentence

Who sings that song?
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degrees of comparison


Tingkat Perbandingan

Kata sifat kuantitatif much dan little, dan kata sifat bilangan many and few, mempunyai tingkat

perbandingan (degrees comparison).

The degrees of comparison (tingkat perbandingan) berjumlah tiga tingkat, yaitu :

1. The positive degree (tingkat biasa)

2. The comparative (tingkat lebih/perbandingan)

3. The superlative (tingkat paling)

1) Kata sifat yang terdiri dari satu suku kata dan beberapa kata sifat bersuku kata dua dapat dibentuk comparative dengan menambahkan er atau r, dan superlative dengan menambahkan -est atau -st.

a) Jika positive berakhir dalam dua huruf mati atau dalam satu huruf mati yang didahului oleh dua huruf hidup, er dan est ditambahkan













b) Jika positive berakhir dalam satu huruf mati dan huruf mati itu didahului oleh sebuah vokal pendek, huruf mati terakhir digandakan kemudian ditambahkan er dan est


big = besar

wet = basah

hot = panas


bigger = lebih besar

wetter = lebih basah

hotter = lebih panas


biggest = terbesar

wettest = terbasah

hottest = terpanas

c) Jika positive berakhir huruf e, hanya r dan st ditambahkan


nice = baik

fine = bagus

wise = bijaksana


nicer = lebih baik

finer = lebih bagus

wiser = lebih bijak


nicest = terbaik

finest = terbagus

wisest = terbijaksana

d) Jika positive berakhir huruf y, dan y itu didahului oleh huruf mati, y diubah menjadi I, lalu ditambahkan er dan est


wry = miring

dry = kering

happy = bahagia


wrier = lebih miring

drier = lebih kering

happier = lebih bahagia


wriest =paling miring

driest = terkering

happiest = terbahagia

e) Jika y didahului oleh sebuah huruf hidup, y tidak diubah menjadi i, tapi langsung ditambahkan r dan est


gay = riang

coy = pemalu

grey = mendung


gayer = lebih riang

coyer = lebih pemalu

greyer = lebih mendung


gayest = teriang

coyest = terpemalu

greyest = termendung

f) Kata sifat yang terdiri dari dua suku kata (two syllables) yang berakhiran some, ow, le, er, ditambahkan er dan est
















2) Kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua – two syllables (yang tekanan suaranya jatuh pada suku kata awal) atau lebih, ditambahkan more untuk membentuk comperatives dan most untuk superlatives


famous = terkenal

useful = berguna

beautiful = cantik


more famous

more useful

more beautiful


most famous

most useful

most beautiful

3) Beberapa kata sifat dibentuk dengan cara tak beraturan (irregular) untuk comparatives dan superlatives
































foremost,first worst













Catatan 1 :

a) Former = yang terlebih dahulu/tadi ; yang pertama (di antara dua benda).

Contoh: I prefer the former fabric. Saya lebih menyukai kain yang terlebih dahulu

Of the two methods I prefer the former. Diantara kedua metoda itu saya lebih menyukai yang pertama

b) Later = yang belakangan

Contoh: I will take the later plane. Saya mau naik kapal terbang yang belakangan

c) Latter = yang belakangan/yang terakhir (di antara dua benda)

Contoh: I will take the latter book. Saya mau membeli buku yang terakhir (di antara dua buah buku)

d) Latest = yang belakangan/yang terakhir sampai sekarang

Contoh: What is the latest news of the war? bagaimanakah kabar terbaru (terakhir) perang itu?

e) Last = yang terakhir (yang paling akhir/penghabisan)

Contoh: This is our last opportunity. Inilah kesempatan terakhir kita

Z is the last letter of the alphabet. Z adalah huruf terakhir abjad

Penjelasan :

Later berarti yang belakangan atau lebih lambat, menunjuk pada waktu

Contoh: She came to school later than I. Ia datang ke sekolah lebih lambat daripada saya

Latter menunjuk pada urutan yang kedua di antara dua hal atau benda yang baru saja disebut

Contoh: Alexandria and Cairo are large cities; the latter has a population of over a million.

Alexandria dan Kairo adalah kota besar ; yang belakangan (yaitu Kairo) mempunyai penduduk lebih dari satu juta orang

Latest berarti yang terakhir sampai sekarang, sedangkan last berarti yang paling terakhir atau


Jika kita katakan :

Did you read Mr. Green’s latest book? apakah anda membaca buku terakhir/terbaru Tuan Green?

Ini berarti bahwa Tn. Green boleh jadi akan mengarang lagi buku lain.

Kalau kita katakan :

Did you read Mr. Green’s last book? apakah anda membaca buku terakhir Tn. Green?

Ini berarti bahwa Tn. Green tidak atau tidak akan menulis buku lain lagi setelah buku yang

dimaksudkan tadi.

Catatan 2 :

a) Elder juga bentuk comperative dari old. Perhatikan perbedaan pemakaian elder dan older.

Contoh: John is my elder brother. John adalah kakak laki-laki saya

John is older than Lisa. John lebih tua daripada Lisa

b) Eldest juga bentuk superlative dari old. Perhatikan perbedaan pemakaian eldest dan oldest:

She is my eldest daughter. Ia putriku yang sulung

That is the oldest hotel in the city. Itulah hotel yang tertua di kota ini

Penjelasan :

Elder dan eldest dipakai pada orang saja, dan paling sering dipakai pada orang dalam hubungan

kekeluargaan. Sedangkan older dan oldest dipakai untuk menyatakan umur atau usia yang lebih tua atau tertua pada orang atau pun benda.

4) Ada enam buah kata adverbs (kata keterangan) dalam bentuk positive degrees, tetapi adjectives (kata sifat) dalam bentuk comparative dan supelative


















innermost, inmost

uttermost, utmost



5) Kata-kata sifat tertentu tidak dapat diperbandingkan

perfect = sempurna

unique = unik

supreme = tertinggi

preferable = lebih baik

natural = alamiah

right = benar

wrong = salah


POSITIVE DEGREE (tingkat positif) digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa sesuatu itu sama tingkatannya. Perbandingan untuk sesuatu yang tingkatannya sama digunakan as … as.

Contoh: Ali is 1,6 meters and Anwar is also 1,6 meters.

Ali is AS TALL AS Anwar.

This book cost Rp. 2.000,-. That book costs Rp. 2.000,-

This book is AS EXPENSIVE AS that one

Bentuk negatif dari perbandingan ini adalah sebagai berikut:

Contoh: Jakarta is not AS WARM AS Surabaya.

Rumus :

as + positive + as

no less + positive + than

not more + positive + than


This girl is as clever as that. Anak perempuan ini sepandai anak perempuan itu

This girl is no less clever than that. Anak perempuan ini sama pandainya dengan anak perempuan itu

That girl is not more clever than this. Gadis itu tidak lebih pandai daripada gadis ini

(berarti gadis itu dan gadis ini sama pandainya)

B. COMPARATIVE DEGREE digunakan apabila dua orang atau benda dikatakan tidak sama dalam hal sifat yang tertentu Yang satu lebih dari yang lain. Tingkat perbandingan dinyatakan dengan menggunakan “-er” jika kata sifat itu hanya memiliki satu suku kata (one syllable) serta di tambah kata “than.”

Contoh: Handi is TALLER than Anton

A train is FASTER than a bus

Jika kata sifat itu diakhiri dengan le, r, ow, y, maka tambahkan “-er”. Jika kata sifat diakhiri dengan “y”, maka berubah menjadi “ier.”

Contoh: This problem is simpler than the one we had yesterday.

The street in front of my house is narrower than this one.

Comparative degree yang menggunakan lebih dari satu suku kata (two or more syllables) digunakan “more.” Suku kata maksudnya beautiful = beau-ti-ful (3 suku kata); expensive = ex-pen-sive (tiga suku kata), useful = use-ful (dua suku kata)

Contoh: TV Program are more interesting than radio program.

My trousers are more expensive than yours.

Rumus :

comparative + than


Lisa is taller than her sister. Lisa lebih tinggi daripada saudara perempuannya

Jakarta is bigger than Surabaya. Jakarta lebih besar daripada Surabaya


Aturan untukk dua suku kata (two syllabels) lebih rumit. Beberapa adjective membentuk comparative and superlative dengan –er, -est., beberapa dengan more, most, yang lainnya boleh kedua-duanya.

Two-syllable adjectives dengan –er, -est

1. Adjective berakhiran –y yang didahului oleh konsonan

Contoh: pretty – prettier, dirty – dirtier, noisy – noisier, happy – happier, unhappy – unhappier

2. Adjective berakhiran –ple, -ble, dan biasanya –tle, -dle

Contoh: simple – simpler, noble – nobler, humble – humbler, subtle – subtler, idle – idler

Two-syllable adjective dengan more, most

1. Sebagian besar adjective berakhir suffix derivatif: -ous, -ish, -ful, -ing, -ed, etc.

Contoh: more famous, more useful, more childish, more interesting, more tired

2. Sebagian besar adjective berakhiran –ct, -nt, -st

Contoh: more exact, more recent, more honest, more urgent

Two-Syllable adjective dengan –er, -est or more, most (yang bentuk –er, -est kurang formal)

1. Adjective berakhiran –er: cleverer, tenderer, bitterer

2. Adjective berakhiran –ow: narrower, shallower, mellower

3. Adjective berakhiran –some: hansomer, wholesomer, lonesomer

4. Others: penekanan pada suku kata pertama: pleasanter, crueler, quieter, stupider

Penekanan pada suku kata kedua: politer, profounder, remoter, obscurer, sincerer, severer, securer

C. SUPERLATIVE DEGREE (tingkat superlative) yaitu apabila seseorang atau sebuah benda dikatakan melebihi atau mengungguli semua orang atau benda yang lain yang sama macamnya, kita menggunakan superlative degree dengan the … of.

Ketika kata sifat terdiri dari satu atau dua suku kata, digunakan dengan menambahkan “est.”

Contoh: The Wisma Nusantara building is THE TALLEST building in Jakarta.

An elephant is THE BIGGEST animal nowadays.

Ketika kata sifat berakhir dengan “y”, maka tingkat superlative berubah menjadi “iest.”

Contoh: Today is THE HAPPIEST day for me. It’s my birthday.

I don’t know which is THE HEAVIEST metal.

Kata sifat yang lebih dari dua suku kata menggunakan “MOST.”
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Question tag

Tag question

A question tag or tag question is a grammatical structure in which a declarative statement or an imperative is turned into a question by adding an interrogative fragment (the "tag"). The term "question tag" is generally preferred by British grammarians, while their American counterparts prefer "tag question".

Forms and uses
In most languages, tag questions are more common in colloquial spoken usage than in formal written usage. They can be an indicator of politeness, emphasis, or irony. They may suggest confidence or lack of confidence; they may be confrontational or tentative. Some examples showing the wide variety of structure possible in English are:
• Open the window, will you?
• She doesn't really want those apples, does she?
• You'd better stop now, hadn't you?
• So you thought it would be a good idea to reprogram the computer, did you?
• It's quite an achievement, isn't it, to win a Nobel prize!
• Oh I must, must I?
• I just adore Beethoven, don't you?
• I'm coming with you, all right?
• You've been there, right?
• Easier said than done, eh?
• You went there, no?

Some languages have a fixed phrase for the tag question, such as Russian не правда ли? (not true?), French n'est-ce pas? ("is it not?") and German (known as "Rückfrageverisicherungen") nicht wahr?, "nicht?", "ja?", "ne?", "richtig?",gell?, or simply oder?. Standard English tag questions, on the other hand, are constructed afresh for every sentence, and are therefore quite variable: have I? did you? won't we? etc. A similar pattern is found in the Celtic languages. A tag question need not have the grammatical form of a question (will you?); an adverb or adverbial may serve the purpose instead: right? all right? surely? OK? eh? German often uses oder? ("or") and ja? ("yes") as tag questions.

Care should be taken by the confident speaker to make certain that any tag questions are not mistaken for a leading question. The frequency with which Londoners use isn't it sounds strange to American ears and can be mistaken for manipulation.

Tag questions in English

English tag questions, when they have the grammatical form of a question, are atypically complex, because they vary according to four factors: the choice of auxiliary, the negation, the intonation pattern and the emphasis.


The English tag question is made up of an auxiliary verb and a pronoun. The auxiliary has to agree with the tense, aspect and modality of the verb in the preceding sentence. If the verb is in the perfect tense, for example, the tag question uses has or have; if the verb is in a present progressive form, the tag is formed with am, are, is; if the verb is in a tense which does not normally use an auxiliary, like the present simple, the auxiliary is taken from the emphatic do form; and if the sentence has a modal auxiliary, this is echoed in the tag:
• He's read this book, hasn't he?
• He read this book, didn't he?
• He's reading this book, isn't he?
• He reads a lot of books, doesn't he?
• He'll read this book, won't he?
• He should read this book, shouldn't he?
• He can read this book, can't he?
A special case occurs when the main verb is to be in a simple tense. Here the tag question repeats the main verb, not an auxiliary:
• This is a book, isn't it?
(Not doesn't it?, as the normal rules for present simple would suggest.)
If the main verb is to have, either solution is possible:
• He has a book, hasn't he?
• He has a book, doesn't he?


English tag questions may contain a negation, but need not. When there is no special emphasis, the rule of thumb often applies that a positive sentence has a negative tag and vice versa:
• She is French, isn't she?
• She's not French, is she?
These are sometimes called "balanced tag questions". However, it has been estimated that in normal conversation, as many as 40%-50%[1] of tags break this rule. "Unbalanced tag questions" (positive to positive or negative to negative) may be used for ironic or confrontational effects:
• Do listen, will you?
• Oh, I'm lazy, am I?
• Jack: I refuse to spend Sunday at your mother's house! Jill: Oh you do, do you? We'll see about that!
• Jack: I just won't go back! Jill: Oh you won't, won't you?
Patterns of negation can show regional variations. In North East Scotland, for example, positive to positive is used when no special effect is desired:
• This pizza's fine, is it? (standard English: This pizza's delicious, isn't it?)
Note the following variations in the negation when the auxiliary is the I form of the copula:
• England (and America, Australia, etc.): Clever, aren't I?
• Scotland/Northern Ireland: Clever, amn't I?
• nonstandard dialects: Clever, ain't I?


English tag questions can have a rising or a falling intonation pattern. This is contrasted with Polish, French or German, for example, where all tags rise. As a rule, the English rising pattern is used when soliciting information or motivating an action, that is, when some sort of response is required. Since normal English yes/no questions have rising patterns (e.g. Are you coming?), these tags make a grammatical statement into a real question:
• You're coming, aren't you?
• Do listen, will you?
• Let's have a beer, shall we?
The falling pattern is used to underline a statement. The statement itself ends with a falling pattern, and the tag sounds like an echo, strengthening the pattern. Most English tag questions have this falling pattern.
• He doesn't know what he's doing, does he?
• This is really boring, isn't it?
Sometimes the rising tag goes with the positive to positive pattern to create a confrontational effect:
• He was the best in the class, was he? (rising: the speaker is challenging this thesis, or perhaps expressing surprised interest)
• He was the best in the class, wasn't he? (falling: the speaker holds this opinion)
• Be careful, will you? (rising: expresses irritation)
• Take care, won't you? (falling: expresses concern)
Sometimes the same words may have different patterns depending on the situation or implication.
• You don't remember my name, do you? (rising: expresses surprise)
• You don't remember my name, do you? (falling: expresses amusement or resignation)
• Your name's Mary, isn't it? (rising: expresses uncertainty)
• Your name's Mary, isn't it? (falling: expresses confidence)
It is interesting that as an all-purpose tag the London set-phrase innit (for "isn't it") is only used with falling patterns:
• He doesn't know what he's doing, innit?
• He was the best in the class, innit?
On the other hand, the adverbial tag questions (alright? OK? etc.) are almost always found with rising patterns. An occasional exception is surely.


English tag questions are normally stressed on the verb, but the stress is on the pronoun if there is a change of person.
• I don't like peas, do you?
• I like peas, don't you?
This is often a rising tag (especially when the tag contains no negation), or the intonation pattern may be the typically English fall-rise.
In French, this would be expressed with et toi?, which is also a kind of tag question.

Variant forms

There are a number of variant forms that exist in particular dialects of English. These are generally invariant, regardless of verb, person or negativity.
The tag right? is essentially equivalent to the Spanish ¿verdad?. It is common in a number of dialects across the UK and US.
The tag eh? is of Scottish origin, and can be heard across much of Scotland, New Zealand, Canada and the North-Eastern United States. In Central Scotland (in and around Stirling and Falkirk), this exists in the form eh no? which is again invariant.

False tag in Welsh English

It is often erroneously assumed that Welsh speakers of English use a tag question to make an emphatic statement, eg: Lovely day, isn't it?
However, this is instead a cleft sentence of the form: Lovely day, is in it.
This has its roots in the Welsh language, and this type of cleft features in all extant Celtic languages. The lack of verb at the start of this construction coupled with the lack of rising intonation mark this as distinct from tag questions, which are used in Welsh English in the same manner as the majority of the UK.

source from: wikipedia

nama : muhammad ihsan mufthi
kelas : 1dc01
npm : 48109536

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participle is an adjective Tobe formed from the word "verb past" to carry allong meaning "di or ter" and such is having on the sentence as "pasive voice or causative sentence

the reference: id the name of "past participle" carries along meaning" di or ter, tobe called as " participle" and the level as "adjective" butif the name of past participle doesn't "carry along meaning" di or ter but search carries along meaning "me,be,ti" tobe called as past participle and the level as verb

past participle is a word that shows the meaning of "telah or sudah" and such is having in the sentence as present perpect tense or past perpect tense

present perpect tense is mainly used for an action which has been alone in the past time and it has connected with now but not to show the continuing deed, and such use as reference time , such as" seldom, durst,scare,rare,often,never,and now,but nolonge, no more,ever,sudah telah
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And the name of subjunctive is reflected into :
  • subjunctive as future possible condition
  • subjunctive as past real possible condition
  • subjunctive as present unreal possible condition
  1. Subjunctive as future possible condition is mainly used for an action which will be done in the next time and its really occurred in the future time if to show the full condition is formed as compound sentence that is : subordinative clause or main clause well,it's used for subordinative clause or,main clause,well it;s used for subordinative clause in BA or AA as present tense, BAA as present continuous tense and it;s used for main clause in BA,BAA or AA as present future tense, by using the reference time such as:
  • next
  • later
  • after
  • in the future time
  • in the following time
  • in the next time

2. Subjunctive as past real possible condition is mainly used for an action which would have been done in the pass time but it had not been done because of having something going on well the name of subjuncvtive as "past real possible condition" is formed as compound sentence that is subordinative clause or main clause it's used for subordinative clause in BA as past perpect tense, BAA as past continuos tense, AA as past tense and it's used for main clause in BA Or AA as past future perpect tense.BAA as past continuous tense

3. Subjunctive as prsent unreal possible condition is mainly used for an action which wasimpossible come about now because of showing the unfull conditional human's action and the name of subjunctive as presenst unreal possible condition is formed as compond sentence that is suboedinative clause as past tense and it's used for suboedinative clause as past tense and it's used for main clause as past future tense
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Indefinite aticle : is an article that shows the word noun as the unpermanent situation.

the reference :
well the word article "a"or "an" is called as indefinite article, the word article " a",or "an" is specially used for the word noun as countable thing in positive sentence, if to show the unpermanent situation but if it's used for the word noun as uncountable thing just to use the word "any" or "some" well such is used as subtitution the word article "a" is specially used for the word noun whiches begun by the consonant sounded letter and the word article "an" is sppecially used for the word noun which is begun by the vocal sounded letter also,article "any" is used in negative or interrogative sentence and the word article "some" is used in possitive sentence

definite rticle : is an article that shows the word noun as the permanent situation
the reference : well, the word article, "the" is called as definite article the word article "the" can be use fo the word noun as countable thing or uncountabe thingif to show the permanent situation such can be used in singular or plural

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Abstract Noun

Abstract noun is formed from adjective or adverb standf of :

  • if the word adjective of adverb is changed as noun by using the word "y", ity or nesswell if the word adjective is suffix by the letter "t" to be changed as noun by using the letter :"y" and if the word adjective is suffix by the letter "l" or "ve" to be changed as noun by using the letter "ity' even, if the word adjective is out suffix by the letter t,l or ve tobe changed as noun by using the letter "ness" also it ca use the word being, having,getting or doing and its caved as gerund.
  • if the word adjective is changed as verb by using the word "ise","ize","ate","fy","en","be",or "get". well if the word adjective is suffix by letter "t" to be changed as verb by using the word "ise" but,if the word adjective is suffix by the letter 'l" tobe changed as verb by using the word "ize" and if the word adjective is suffix by te letter "ve" tobe changed as verb by using "ate" or fy. even if the word djective is out suffix by the letter "t", "l",or "ve", tobe changed as verb by using the letter "en","be" ,or "get
  • if the word adjective is changed as adverb. evn if the adjective is added by the letter "ish" to carry along meaning "dengan or secara and its called as adverb. even if the word adjective is added by the letter ish to carry along meaning "agak" the same with the word "rather" fairly,some what, quite,or litle also if the name of colour is added by the letter "ish" to cary along meaning "ke"
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